Surveying Terminology

As-Builts
BOMA (Rentable Area) Surveys
Boundary Location and Pegging
Cross-Lease Subdivisions
Data Capture
Farm and Forestry Mapping
Freehold Subdivisions
GPS, GNSS, etc., (Global Positioning System)
Height In Relation To Boundary (HIRB)
Levelling
Set Out Surveys
Scene Surveys
Subdivision (all forms of sub division)
Survey Mark Protection and Replacement
Topographical Map Site Surveys
Unit Title Subdivisions

Disclaimer: The explanations and definitions described herein are for the purposes of providing basic understanding to our surveying services. They are not intended to be technical in nature and they should not be relied upon for such purposes whatsoever.  We take no responsibility and accept no liability for the consequences from any person acting, or refraining from acting on such information.  Please contact us direct should you require further clarification.

 

As-Builts
After the construction works have taken place Ascension Surveyors Limited can assist you by preparing survey plans detailing the location and route taken by the structure, be it pipeline, carriageway or building. Set out surveys mentioned above naturally come before and during land development and other construction phases. As-Builts are a physical record of what has been constructed. These usually show such data as pipe sizes, road widths, levels etc of what has been built. Mostly they require certification from a Licensed Cadastral Surveyor as to their accuracy and compliance with specifications.

BOMA (Rentable Area) Surveys
Ascension Surveyors Limited can accurately survey and measure the dimensions of an office, warehouse or commercial building in order to arrive at an accurate and fair area for leasing or rental purposes. From this survey we produce a floor plan using CAD Graphics packages from which the floor (and or building) rental value is determined. These surveys are required to a high standard of accuracy since significant amounts of rental income are involved. Our Licensed Cadastral Surveyors (Registered Professional Surveyors) guarantee their work by certifying the plan as to the accuracy of the survey and measurements shown thereon.

Boundary Location and Pegging
Once title has been issued for a realestate allotment (commonly called lot or section) the owner may require the location of the property boundaries (pegs) for several reasons. They may wish to further subdivide the land (all forms of sub division), erect a new dwelling or construct an addition to an existing one. They may also require to know where the property boundary is if they wish to erect a new fence along the common boundary between existing realestate lots (sections). This type of survey is referred to as a redefinition, reinstatement or repegging.

If you need your property boundaries found contact us and we will take care of all the pre and post survey work together with the actual survey location (including pegging) of the realestate boundaries. We will search and obtain the relevant survey plans and your realestate title at LINZ and carry out any necessary calculations to determine where you site boundary is. We will also draw up the survey field notes and write the survey report both of which must be lodged with LINZ. We will also supply you with a copy of these for your records.

One point to note is that it is not permitted by law for a surveyor to redefine realestate boundary positions of a certificate of title “limited as to parcels”. This is because the area and dimensions of such a title are not “guaranteed”. The licensed cadastral surveyor must survey not only the entire site but also the surrounding sites in order to gather evidence as to where the realestate boundaries are. Occupation such as fencing, buildings, spouting or driveways plays an important part in determining the official property boundary positions. This occupation must be of pre-requisite age. Limited title surveys can be complex although we at Ascension Surveyors have the necessary professional survey experience to carry these out efficiently. If you title is marked “Limited as to Parcels” and you wish to find your realestate boundaries give us a call and we will advise you on the steps that must be taken.

Cross-Lease Subdivisions
Occur where buildings or dwellings are leased (leasehold titles). In this type of subdivision (sub division) owners have an equal but undivided share in the fee simple title (the land) and lease their dwelling from all other owners. Such subdivisions (sub division) usually involve common use areas (e.g. shared driveways) and exclusive or restrictive covenant areas i.e. the owners cross agree to use certain areas for their own use without infringing upon the areas of the other owners. It is important to note that it is the building that is being leased and not the entire land.

Often the Rules of the Territorial Local Authority (e.g. Auckland Council) are more relaxed with a cross-lease subdivision (leasehold sub division). This is because the whole Lot (site or title) is being considered rather than the restrictive area each owner will occupy. So you may have a situation whereby freehold subdivision (sub division) is not permitted due to insufficient area being present whereas a cross-lease is allowed for the same area available.

There is generally agreement of opinion amongst land professionals and councils that cross-lease subdivisions (sub division) are a lesser form of ownership. An attempt is being made to have cross-lease phased out or converted to freehold subdivisions (sub division titles). The reasoning is quite clear since any changes to be made to a cross-lease site or dwelling requires the consent of all other cross-leasing owners e.g. to erect a garage or add a new room. Often this process isn’t followed and many an unsuspecting vendor finds that they are unable to sell their property without first having a survey performed to correct a defect in the cross-lease title.

Data Capture
Is a term that can be applied to all forms of survey.  It is however normally applied to the collection of data related to an asset such as a service inspection cover, a power pole or a utility service feature etc. Data can be captured or collected using GNSS (GPS), Total Station (integrated theodolite and distance measurer) or Photogrammetric forms of survey. Utility Companies and Territorial Local Authorities are commonly the major clients of this form of survey however forestry companies and indeed many other asset management companies require their assets to be surveyed for position and attribute data. ASL has the equipment and the expertise to undertake your asset management surveys. We would be pleased to receive your enquiry and to assist you in any project. Contact us now to discuss your asset and realestate surveying needs.

Farm and Forestry Mapping
To assist you in the efficient management of farming and forestry operations Ascension Surveyors Limited can prepare a topographic plan or topographic map that shows your area with contours (heights) and other pertinent features. These maps or plans can be derived from field-surveyed data or from aerial photographs mapped in a photogrammetric machine. The information displayed on the map can be used to calculate spraying rates, cropping figures, harvest figures etc and form a valuable tool in the management of your asset.

Freehold Subdivisions
Occur where new realestate lots (often loosely referred to as sections) are created and ownership is to be held in an estate in fee simple. Fee Simple estates are the least troublesome when dealing with neighbours and ownership rights.

GPS, GNSS, etc., (Global Positioning System)
GPS (GNSS) is a form of survey that utilises the signals transmitted from the GPS (GNSS) satellites to determine 3-dimensional position (X, Y, Z) on the earth’s surface. This surveying method can be used for Land Development Construction Set Out, Data Collection, Topographical Map Surveys and Precise Measurements such as Geodetic Control. It is also commonly used for realestate property surveys such as boundary location and subdivison (all forms of sub division).

The advantages of using the GPS (GNSS) techniques are that the line of sight between survey stations is not needed (surveys can be carried out in adverse weather and at night). Surveys can be completed with savings in time and hence cost and the accuracies obtained can be significantly higher than by using other conventional measurement equipment. The survey method does however require a clear path of signal between satellite and GPS (GNSS) receiver (antenna).  Buildings, vegetation or landforms such as hills and gulleys can create a problem receiving the signal.

Although it has many advantages over other methods GPS (GNSS) surveying may not always be the most efficient or cost effective. Contact our Licensed Cadastral Surveyros (Registered Professional Surveyors) first to discuss your requirements and they will assist you to arrive at a survey solution that best satisfies your needs.

Height In Relation To Boundary (HIRB)
If you are building or adding an extension to your realestate home you may require a surveyor to check the degree of compliance with the District Plan Rules. A height to boundary survey is often required by council to prove that the daylight requirements as set out in the District Plan are met. The surveys are required to show that new buildings and or extensions comply or show where they do not. Our Licensed Cadastral Surveyors (Registered Professional Surveyors) can determine the relationship between parts of the building and the property boundary and the degree of compliance. If compliance is met they will provide you with a Licensed Cadastral Surveyor's certification in a format acceptable to council. They will also assist you in assessing the degree of non-compliance.

Levelling
Ascension Surveyors Limited can determine to varying degrees of accuracy the height of a point or differences between points by using levelling instruments, GPS (GNSS) or Total Stations. The datum can either be assumed or known e.g. mean sea level or the assumed height of 100m on a manhole lid or boundary peg. Heights in terms of mean sea level are required for Unit Title surveys.

The end use determines the accuracy required for levelling and hence the surveying methods. For high accuracy levels Ascension Surveyors Limited uses a precise instrument and strict observational procedures e.g. using bar reading levels and invar staves on pins or trivets outside heavy traffic or disturbance periods. For simple levelling tasks Ascension Surveyors Limited may only use a dumpy or low accuracy level and metal staff.

Ascension Surveyors Limited also uses other forms of heighting such as vertical angles and measured distances. This is commonly referred to as trigonometrical levelling or trig heighting. This form of course is of a lower order of accuracy however if it suits the client’s needs it is a valid alternative to higher cost greater accuracy levelling.

Scene Surveys
Are similar to Topographic Map Surveys. They involve the collection of data or evidence from site areas where some activity has taken place e.g. an accident or crime scene. Ascension Surveyors Limited is expert in the collection and presentation of this data in graphical form. Its Licensed Cadastral Surveyors (Registered Professional Surveyors) are familiar with the requirements of working on such scenes where the protection of evidence, the scene integrity and confidentiality is paramount. All work is carried out in the strictest confidentiality and integrity and we would be pleased to receive your enquiry.

Set Out Surveys
We can provide you with the exact layout position of a structure such as a building, road or pipeline prior to works being undertaken. You will have the confidence that the works are located as designed and are within the property boundaries of the site. Many projects require certification that the works have been set out by a Licensed Cadastral Surveyor. Ascension Surveyors Limited can provide this certification if required.

This type of survey most frequently occurs in the Construction and Civil Engineering fields. The degree of accuracy to be employed depends upon the end use of the surveyed positions e.g. compare the high level of accuracy required for setting out the Sky Tower to the lower accuracy for setting out your driveway.

Subdivisions (all forms of sub division)
Are assessed under the Resource Management Act 1991 and controlled by the Territorial Local Authority (usually a City or District Council e.g. Auckland Council). Subdivisions (sub divisions) generally conform to rules in a District Plan and include Freehold (e.g. Lot 1 DP 12345), Cross-lease (e.g. Flat 1 DP 12345) and Unit Title (e.g. Unit 1 DP 12345) forms of realestate ownership. We are well versed in the procedures of subdivision (sub division) and would welcome your enquiry with regards to any of the subdivision (sub divsision) types mentioned below.

Survey Mark Protection and Replacement
Under Section 68 of the Survey Act 1986 persons or organisations are liable for the disturbance of survey marks. The more obvious of these marks are the trig beacons (see picture), the bronze plaques or stainless steel pins under cast iron frames and covers and the benchmarks. Survey marks also consist of iron tubes or spikes driven vertically into the ground (often buried) and of course property boundary pegs and discs.

Ascension Surveyors Limited can assist any person requesting to know which marks are likely to be destroyed or disturbed by their works in the vicinity.

The cost of actual protection or reinstatement of any affected survey mark is also the responsibility of that person or organisation. In a number of cases only a LINZ Service Provider is permitted to carry out the replacement and subsequent survey work. Ascension Surveyors Limited is a LINZ Service Provider and supplies a chargeable service for offsetting and reinstating survey marks that are at risk to destruction or disturbance.

Contact us at Ascension Surveyors Limited to obtain a fixed price quote for undertaking such work and we will inform LINZ on your behalf.

Topographical Map Site Surveys
Involve the collection of data relating to 3-dimensional position. Spot heights, contours, significant vegetative and physical features are usually collected.  These provide useful base data for further design by architects, surveyors and engineers. The data are presented in digital (e.g. dwg file) and hard copy topographic plan form and may on the face of it look like a map. The most significant differences between a topographical plan and a map are that the plan shows features to actual scale and covers a smaller area (large scales used).  A map will show all except the largest features as symbols and will be drawn at much smaller scales thereby covering expansive areas. If you require a simple or detailed topographical plan or map give us a call and we will be pleased to help you with your requirements.

Unit Title Subdivisions
Generally occur where more than one dwelling or building is built on a single title or straddle property title boundaries and separate ownership is required for each but where cross leasing is not desired. This usually occurs where there are multi storey developments and the Unit Title allows for separate ownership of each level (strata). Like cross-leases (leashold) common areas can occur e.g. driveways, lifts and stairwells. The Unit Titles Act controls such developments and a Body Corporate administers the day-to-day running of the complex. Unit Titles involve owners in financial and administrative efforts that are unlikely to be present in cross-leases e.g. attendance in yearly Body Corporate meetings and decision making with regards to changes to units, paying Body Corporate administration fees etc.

All the above subdivision (sub division) types usually start with a Topographical Map Site Survey where contour and detail property data is collected in the field and a topographical map or topographical plan prepared showing the site’s attributes. Further information such as stormwater, wastewater drainage, site coverages (buildings, permeable and impermeable areas), living area circles, privacy areas, off street parking, vehicle turning etc, proposed Lot areas are also shown on the plan. The plan is accompanied by a comprehensive report prepared by a Licensed Cadastral Surveyor and an application is made to the Territorial Local Authority (TLA = Council) for subdivision (sub division) consent.

The Territorial Local Authority (Council) will process the subdivision (sub division) application. It can either approve the application with or without conditions or may refuse the application on grounds contained in the Resource Management Act 1991. The Resource Management Act is effects based legislation and applications must address the issues that the subdivision (sub division) will cause on the environment.

Subdivisions (sub divisions) can occur in both Town and Country areas and Ascension Surveyors Limited has the expertise and experience to undertake City and Rural Subdivisions (sub divisions).

 

Disclaimer: The explanations and definitions described herein are for the purposes of providing basic understanding to our surveying services. They are not intended to be technical in nature and they should not be relied upon for such purposes whatsoever.  We take no responsibility and accept no liability for the consequences from any person acting, or refraining from acting on such information.  Please contact us direct should you require further clarification.